Access Modifiers in Java

Access modifiers in java specify the scope of a class, constructor , variable , method or data member. There are four types of access modifiers available in java:

  1. Private
  2. Default – No keyword required
  3. Protected
  4. Public

access modifiers in java

1. Private Access Modifier –

The private access modifier is accessible only within class. The private access modifier is specified using the keyword private.

  • The methods or data members declared as private are accessible only within the class in which they are declared.
  • Any other class of same package will not be able to access these members.
  • Classes or interface can not be declared as private.

In this example, we will create two classes A and B within same package p1. We will declare a method in class A as private and try to access this method from class B and see the result.

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Output
error: display() has private access in A
obj.display();
2. Default Access Modifier –

If you don’t use any modifier, it is treated as default bydefault. The default modifier is accessible only within package.

  • The data members, class or methods which are not declared using any access modifiers i.e. having default access modifier are accessible only within the same package.

In this example, we will create two packages and the classes in the packages will be having the default access modifiers and we will try to access a class from one package from a class of second package.

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Output
Compile time error
3. Protected Access Modifier –

The protected access modifier is specified using the keyword protected.

  • The protected access modifier is accessible within package and outside the package but through inheritance only.
  • The protected access modifier can be applied on the data member, method and constructor.
  • It can’t be applied on the class.

In this example, we will create two packages p1 and p2. Class A in p1 is made public, to access it in p2. The method display in class A is protected and class B is inherited from class A and this protected method is then accessed by creating an object of class B.

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Output
Simple Snippets
4. Public Access Modifier –

The public access modifier is specified using the keyword public.

  • The public access modifier is accessible everywhere. It has the widest scope among all other modifiers.
  • Classes, methods or data members which are declared as public are accessible from every where in the program. There is no restriction on the scope of a public data members.

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Output
Simple Snippets

Understanding all Access Modifiers Accessibility using Table

Access Modifierwithin classwithin packageoutside package by subclass onlyoutside package
PrivateYNNN
DefaultYYNN
ProtectedYYYN
PublicYYYY

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